Basic First Aid Tips

Basic First Aid Tips

1) Cuts/Scrape

If there’s bleeding, first press firmly over the site with a clean cloth until it stops, anywhere from three to 15 minutes. Clean under lukewarm running water and gently pat dry. When a wound is dirty or was caused by an animal scratch, rinse it with water and gently lather with soap. If the skin is broken, apply a thin layer of an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment (like Neosporin or Bacitracin), then cover with a bandage or gauze and adhesive tape.

If a large piece of skin has been removed, wrap it in a clean, moist cloth and place it in a bag over ice — a doctor may be able to reattach it. An animal bite that has caused a deep cut should be seen by a doctor.

2) Nosebleeds

-Lean the head slightly forward, so blood doesn’t run down the throat.
-With a tissue or washcloth, gently press the nostrils together to stop the bleeding.
-Hold the nose for at least 5 minutes. Then check to see if the bleeding has stopped. If it hasn’t stopped, gently squeeze for another 10 minutes.

3) Burn

Immediately hold under cool running water or apply a cold, wet towel until the pain subsides. Cover any small blisters with a loose bandage or gauze and tape; call a doctor as soon as possible if burns are on the face, hands, or genitals, or if they’re larger than 1/4 inch anywhere on the body. If the burn looks deep — the skin may be white or brown and dry — go to the E.R. For a burn covering a tenth of the body or more, don’t use cold compresses.

4) Treat bee, wasp, and other insect stings

-If the insect has left behind a stinger, remove it from the skin so less of the venom gets into your body. You can scrape out the stinger with the edge of a credit card or the dull edge of a knife. Don’t squeeze the stinger. You might release more of the venom into your skin.
-Once the stinger is out or if there is no stinger, wash the area around the sting with soap and water.-
-Hold an ice pack or cool washcloth to the sting to stop it from swelling.
-Spread calamine lotion or baking soda mixed with water to relieve pain.
-To prevent itching, use a spray or cream containing hydrocortisone or antihistamine.

5) Glass

Use soap and water to wash around the splinter. Clean a pair of tweezers with rubbing alcohol and slowly pull the splinter out. Wash the skin again. When a splinter is hard to remove, leave it for a day or so to see whether it comes out on its own. If your child steps on a piece of glass, and it’s not a single shard you can easily remove, gently wrap a clean cloth around the area and go to the E.R. Ask your doctor about an X-ray even if you think you’ve gotten the glass out; scans often find shards that can lead to infection.

6) Sunburn

-Always wear sunscreen when you’re outdoors to protect your skin from the sun. If you stay outside for too long without protection, you can get a red, itchy burn that may blister. As soon as you spot a sunburn, head inside to treat it.
-Soothe your burned skin with a cool, damp washcloth. Or take a cool shower or bath. Pat your skin dry afterward. Be gentle — your sunburn may be sore.
-Apply an aloe vera lotion. Or use a hydrocortisone cream to relieve the itch. Do not use lotions that contain petroleum, benzocaine, or lidocaine. These ingredients can irritate the skin even more.
-If the sunburn is really sore, take acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve the pain.
-A sunburn can dry out your body. Drink extra water so you won’t get dehydrated.
-Give your sunburn time to heal. Cover your burned skin with clothing and a hat to protect it when you go outside.

7) Sprains/Strains

-Rest the limb to give it a chance to heal.
-Hold ice on the area for 20 minutes at a time, four to eight times a day, to bring down swelling. Don’t use heat — it could make the area swell even more.
-Wrap an elastic bandage or splint around the sprain or strain.
-Put a pillow under the injured body part to keep it raised.
-Take over-the-counter medicines such as ibuprofen to relieve the pain.

8) Dizziness

Sit or lie down. Dizziness or light-headedness usually hits when you are standing up or moving around. At the first signs of dizziness or light-headedness, sit or lie down immediately. This will usually help to relieve the spinning sensation and is safer in the event that you fall.

  • If you’re sitting down, try putting your head between your legs. This increases the blood flow to your brain. Lying down will achieve the same result.
  • Remain seated or lying down for 1 to 2 minutes, or until the dizziness has passed.

Drink water. Dizziness is often the result of dehydration. Dehydration can be caused by not drinking enough water throughout the day or failing to rehydrate during and after exercise. It can also be an issue when you’re suffering from an illness that causes vomiting, diarrhea or fever, which can cause you to lose a lot of fluid. Once the worst of the dizziness has passed, you should drink more water and other fluids.

  • If you’re finding it difficult to drink a lot of water, try drinking other fluids like energy drinks, hot tea with a little sugar, soups and broths, or diluted fruit juices.
Have something to eat. Dizziness can be caused by low blood sugar levels, especially for diabetics.When dizziness hits, try eating a quick snack, preferably something high in carbohydrates or sugar. A bar of chocolate or a banana might do the trick.

Focus on a particular spot. To prevent dizziness when spinning, many dancers focus their eyes on a particular spot. The same technique can be used by people who suffer from dizzy spells.

  • Focusing on a particular spot, like a crack in the ceiling or a speck of dirt on the floor, can help your senses to realize that you are not actually spinning, contrary to what your body is telling you.

Breathe deeply. Dizziness can sometimes be a symptom of an anxiety attack. Often during anxiety attacks it feels as though you cannot get a full breath. But usually the problem is that you’re trying to breathe too much. If this is the case, try breathing slowly and deeply. This will help you to calm down and alleviate feelings of dizziness.

Avoid bright lights. If you are experiencing feelings of dizziness, try to avoid bright lights, or light from a television or laptop.

  • Bright light may cause you to feel disoriented and make the dizziness worse.
  • Try sitting or lying down in a dark room, or close your eyes for a minute or two.