Dark Yellow Urine
High probability that it may contain less water than usual & it happens when there is a water shortage because when you are not drinking enough water, the urine concentration increases and gives it a dark color. It is also one of the most common symptoms of dehydration.
Medical conditions such as jaundice is another common cause of dark yellow urine. Due to the impaired liver function, an excess of the pigment bilirubin gets accumulated in the body which is excreted through urine. This gives a characteristic yellow color to the urine in people suffering from jaundice which may be due to infections like viral hepatitis. Also, intake of Vitamin B complex supplements can also give dark yellow color to urine due to the presence of yellow colored pigments in the medication which are excreted through urine.
The color, in most common cases, is due to the presence of blood in the urine which could be due to various health conditions right from kidney stones and urinary tract infection to an enlarged prostate, and cancer of the bladder or kidney. It could also be due to blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
Red-colored urine can be caused by eating red colored foods such as beetroot, carrots, and blackberries. Due to the presence of the red and orange colored pigments in these foods, eating these foods can also make you pass red colored urine.
In addition to this, there are certain medications which can also cause red colored urine. Intake of certain painkillers such as ibuprofen and anti-tubercular drugs like rifampin also give rise to red colored urine. Also, commonly used drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis such as isoniazid, at times results in light red to orange colored urine.
Although it is very rare but the colour of urine may turn purple due to an unusual phenomenon such as the Purple Urine Bag Syndrome. It arises as a result of urinary tract infection due to a bacterial reaction with synthetic material of the catheter or a urine collection bag. So if a person has a catheter or a urine collection bag attached such as in the case of kidney disease, then the chances of passing purple colored urine is relatively high.
The presence of an excess of calcium, phosphates and other mineral deposits in the urine is the common cause for white coloured urine. In some cases, even severe urinary tract infection may also cause pus formation due to bacterial growth which can result in white colored urine. It is also seen that people suffering from parasite infections such as filariasis report white colored urine. In this case, the urine becomes thick white which is clinically known as chyluria.